Table of Contents

FORWORD………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
1.0        INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
     1.1        Geotechnical Engineering and Pipelines. ………………………………………………….1
     1.2        Outline of Book.. ………………………………………………………………………………………2
2.0        SOIL GENESIS AND GEOLOGICAL FEATURES………………………………………………. 3
3.0        SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND DEFINITIONS………………………………………………….. 13
     3.1        Soil Classification.. ……………………………………………………………………………………..13
    3.2        Organic Soil Classification……………………………………………………………   …………… 21
    3.3        Permafrost Classification……………………………………………………………………………. 21
    3.4        Other Soil Classification Systems………………………………………………………………….21
    3.5        Definitions……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
    3.6        Effect of Groundwater on Soil Stress…………………………………………………………… 28
    3.7        Soil Compaction Procedures and Definitions……………………………………………….. 31
4.0        PIPELINE LOADING SCENARIOS……………………………………………………………….. 33
    4.1        Landslides………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
    4.2        Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading……………………………………………………………. 38
    4.3        Surface Fault Rupture………………………………………………………………………………. 42
    4.4        Upheaval Buckling. …………………………………………………………………………………..45
    4.5        Thermal Expansion at Side Bends……………………………………………………………… 47
    4.6        Frost Heave and Thaw Settlement…………………………………………………………….. 47
    4.7        Impact of Pipe Strains on Failure……………………………………………………………… 50
5.0        GEOTECHNCAL INPUT TO PIPELINE DESIGN AND STRESS ANALYSIS ……. 53
6.0        SOIL STRENGTH TESTING AND INTERPRETATION…………………………………. 57
    6.1        Principle of Effective Stress………………………………………………………………………. 57
    6.2        Soil Strength Tests………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
    6.3        Soil Strength at High Stress Relative to Pipeline Depth……………………………… 66
    6.4        Effective Soil Strength at Shallow Pipeline Depths…………………………………….. 75
     6.5        Typical Strength Values…………………………………………………………………………. 78
     6.6        Effects of Strain Rate on Strength…………………………………………………………… 89
     6.7        Soil Sensitivity……………………………………………………………………………………… 90
     6.8        Soil Strength Variability………………………………………………………………………… 90
     6.9        Strength Correlations……………………………………………………………………………. 92
     6.10      Coefficient of Lateral Earth Pressure………………………………………………………. 99
     6.11      Remolded/Disturbed Strength……………………………………………………………….. 100
7.0        SOIL RESISTANCE, YIELD DISPLACEMENT AND SOIL – PIPELINE INTERACTION….101
     7.1        Maximum Soil Resistance and Stiffness…………………………………………………… 103
     7.2        Axial Soil Spring……………………………………………………………………………………. 107
     7.3        Horizontal Soil Spring……………………………………………………………………………. 112
     7.4        Bearing (Downward) Soil Spring…………………………………………………………….. 120
     7.5        Upward (Uplift) Soil Spring……………………………………………………………………. 126
     7.6        Soil-Pipe Interaction in Muskeg……………………………………………………………… 129
8.0        SOIL- PIPELINE INTERACTION TOPICS………………………………………………….. 131
     8.1        Limiting Maximum Soil Resistance and Stiffness……………………………………… 131
     8.2        Selection of Parameters for Soil Spring Values………………………………………… 132
     8.3        Hyperbolic Soil Resistance Functions…………………………………………………….. 138
     8.4        Effects of Loading Rate on Undrained Soil Strengths………………………………. 139
     8.5        Role of Groundwater in Estimating Soil Strengths…………………………………… 143
     8.6        Thaw Settlement…………………………………………………………………………………… 144
     8.7        Frost Heave………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
     8.8        Implications for Horizontal Directional Drill Installations………………………… 149
     8.9        Use of Multiple Soil Stiffnesses………………………………………………………………. 153
     8.10      Strain Softening and Load-Displacement Behaviour…………………………………. 153
     8.11      Effect of Trench Width on Horizontal Soil Resistance……………………………….. 155
    8.12      Effect of Backfill Aging on Strength………………………………………………………….. 159
    8.13      Effect of Backfill Strength on Horizontal Soil Stiffness……………………………….. 161
    8.14      Effect of Slope of the Trench Wall on Horizontal Soil Resistance…………………. 161
    8.15      Effect of Temperature at Backfilling on Delta-T…………………………………………. 163
    8.16      Effects of Frozen Backfill ………………………………………………………………………… 166
    8.17      Events Involving Large Lateral Displacements…………………………………………… 168
    8.18      Pipeline Displacement Patterns and Transition Zones………………………………… 173
    8.19      Critical Slope Length and Width……………………………………………………………….. 177
    8.20      Virtual Anchor……………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
    8.21      Pipeline Ratchetting………………………………………………………………………………… 182
   8.22      Effects of Displacement Rate…………………………………………………………………….. 184
9.0        MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR SELECTED SOIL – PIPELINE ISSUES……….. 193
    9.1        Thermal Effects……………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
    9.2        Crossings of Geological Faults…………………………………………………………………… 193
    9.3        Landslides………………………………………………………………………………………………. 196
    9.4        Upheaval Displacement and Buckling……………………………………………………….. 200
    9.5        Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading…………………………………………………………… 201
10.0      SUMMARY AND KEY MESSAGES………………………………………………………………. 203
CREDITS AND COPYRIGHT PERMISSIONS………………………………………………………….. 205
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 208
INDEX………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 220

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